Source: Precious Aku Sadzi/ Ghana Web

Managing startups in Ghana is a dynamic and rewarding endeavor, brimming with potential for those who understand the unique features of this developing ecosystem. As I delve into the world of managing startups in Ghana, I recognize the need to draw upon the experiences and lessons of seasoned experts like Tom Eisenmann.

His book “Why Startups Fail” serves as an invaluable guide, shedding light on the common pitfalls and challenges that startups encounter on their journey toward success, discussing issues related to team dynamics, leadership, and decision-making, while also providing valuable insights on when to pivot or persevere and offering practical advice on navigating the complexities of the startup journey.

In this article, I shall explore the intersection of Eisenmann’s insights and the Ghanaian startup landscape, unveiling the strategies and considerations that can equip entrepreneurs and business leaders with the tools to succeed in this thriving Ghanaian startup landscape, while also empowering the next generation of Ghanaian entrepreneurs to overcome obstacles, avoid common pitfalls, and forge a path towards sustainable success in the vibrant world of entrepreneurship.


Here are 3 startup failure patterns that Eisenman highlighted:

1. Market Failure: Some startups fail because they enter markets that are too small, overly competitive, or not well-understood, highlighting the need to conduct proper market research and select the right market before a product or service launch.

2. Product Failure: To him, startups often stumble when they develop products that don’t effectively address customer needs or fail to differentiate themselves from competitors. Entrepreneurs may face many challenges during the product development phase, and as such, there is a need for continuous implementation of changes and customer feedback.

3. Team Failure: He acknowledged that team dynamics, skills, and leadership play a significant role in the success of startups. Issues within the team, such as conflicts or lack of expertise, can lead to the failure of a startup.


Discussed below are some key takeaways for managing a successful startup in Ghana:

1. Start with a Problem, Not a Solution: One of the critical lessons from the book is that successful startups begin by identifying a genuine problem or pain point in the market and then develop solutions to address it. Many failed startups, on the other hand, start with a solution or product idea without considering whether there is a real demand for it. The key is to identify an unmet need; meaning that the need must be strong. If the product does not address a specific need, customers are less likely to purchase it. It is also important to make sure that the product is superior to other existing solutions in order to influence customers to purchase it.

2. Lack of Market Fit: Achieving product-market fit is very important. Startups often fail because they create products or services that don’t solve real problems or meet market needs effectively. One mistake entrepreneurs usually make is assuming that they understand the customers’ needs based on their own preferences. However, it is important to know that customers have different needs, and it is essential to know what these needs are before launching a product or service. Before launching or managing a business in Ghana, conduct thorough market research. Understand your target audience, their needs, and preferences. Tailoring your products or services to the local market can significantly increase your chances of success.

3. Premature Scaling: Scaling here refers to the expansion of a business in order to reach a wider audience. Scaling too quickly before the business model is validated can lead to failure. When scaling occurs too quickly, the startup is likely to have resource challenges, that is, not having enough funding to accommodate the rapid expansion or issues with the quality of the products as well as customer service. Startups need to focus on building a solid foundation, establishing a loyal customer base, and generating sustainable revenue before pursuing rapid growth. Proper planning and execution are essential in ensuring smooth and successful scaling.

4. Team Dysfunction: Team dynamics play a crucial role in a startup’s success. It is important to recruit people who are willing to take initiative and appreciate the mission and vision of the startup. This is because members of the team are involved in the process of bringing your vision to life, and any malfunction in the team can affect the whole process. Employees must also be open to change, and be willing to adapt to new roles where need be. Dysfunctional teams can derail even the most promising ventures. Ensure you have a competent and motivated team by offering competitive compensation, training, and a positive work environment.

5. Ignoring Competition: Many startups fail because they underestimate or ignore their competition. Most rivals launch with low prices in order to gain a foothold in the market and may eventually end up pulling the majority of the mainstream customers. Entrepreneurs must conduct thorough competitive analysis and constantly monitor the market landscape to stay ahead or pivot when necessary. Ignoring or underestimating the competition, market trends, or changing customer preferences can lead to failure.

6. Failure to Pivot: The ability to pivot or change direction is often a lifesaver for startups facing challenges. Knowing when to pivot, as pivoting too late or too early may be fatal to the startup, is important. Sticking rigidly to an initial idea, even when it’s not gaining traction, can lead to failure. Being open to adjustments based on feedback and market conditions is crucial. This allows a business to adapt to evolving market conditions or emerging trends in order to find a better fit and increase the startup’s chances of success. You must be willing to take chances, when necessary, in order to achieve better results.

7. Running Out of Cash: Financial mismanagement is a common cause of startup failure. Founders must decide when to raise money, how much to raise and from whom. When seeking external funding, it is important to know whether the investors are capable of providing enough capital and whether they can add value to the startup in the form of experience or skills. Entrepreneurs must also be diligent about budgeting, fundraising, and managing their cash flow to ensure they have the resources needed to survive and grow.

The Companies Act (Act 992) requires companies to prepare annual financial statements that provide a true and fair view of their financial position, performance, and cash flows. Financial statements typically include a balance sheet, profit and loss statement (income statement), and cash flow statement.

This helps to keep a track record of their resources. Sound financial management is crucial for any business. It is also important to prepare for unexpected challenges or disruptions as they can be detrimental. You can raise enough capital that will serve as a cushion in the face of adversities. Develop contingency plans and be prepared for uncertainties.

8. Inadequate Customer Acquisition and Retention: Successful startups understand the importance of customer acquisition and retention. Customers must be aware of what a startup is offering. Failing to develop effective marketing strategies and customer relationship management can result in stagnation or decline. Marketing and branding are critical for business success.

As an entrepreneur, you must be willing to invest in marketing in order to reach your desired goals. Depending on the word-of-mouth referrals of early adopters is not enough to put your product out there. You must create a positive experience that makes customers want to continue using your products or services. Develop a strong brand presence and marketing strategy to stand out in the competitive Ghanaian market.

9. Ignoring Regulatory and Legal Issues: Startups must be aware of and compliant with relevant regulations and legal requirements. Failing to address these issues can lead to costly legal battles and reputational damage. It is important to get acquainted with Ghana’s legal framework for businesses. The Companies Act (Act 992) outlines the procedures and requirements for registering and forming various types of companies in Ghana. The act allows for the registration of various company types, like private and public companies.

Before registration, businesses must reserve a unique name with the Office of the Registrar of Companies. Every business must also have a constitution compliant with Act 992. The business must then appoint a minimum of two directors, one a Ghanaian resident, and comply with the specified qualifications. A registered Ghanaian address must also be provided for official documentation.

After the submission of the necessary documents and the payment of registration fees, the business receives a certificate of incorporation, after which it can start business operations legally in Ghana. These provisions make it essential for anyone managing a Ghanaian business to familiarize themselves with the registration process. Understanding the requirements for business registration ensures that your business operates within the bounds of the law, preventing legal issues that could jeopardize its success.

10. Hubris and Ego: The book also highlights how overconfidence and ego can be detrimental to startups. Founders who are unwilling to seek help or admit when they are wrong can make costly mistakes. Such founders are so focused and overly confident in their vision that they fail to see when things are going wrong.

While a healthy amount of ego can be a great asset, it is important that entrepreneurs stay humble, open to feedback, and be willing to learn from others. Not only does this contribute to the startup’s success, but it also establishes strong relationships between entrepreneurs and their employees and partners. Strong and adaptable leadership is essential to a startup’s success.


Ghanaian startups have the potential to not only thrive locally but also make a significant impact on the global stage. Andrew Lee, the co-founder of Esper, said “Failure is not the worst thing; the worst thing is working on something for years with no end in sight.” By learning from both the successes and failures outlined in Eisenmann’s book and adapting these lessons to the Ghanaian context, entrepreneurs and investors can confidently navigate the challenges ahead. The future of startups in Ghana is bright, and it is up to us to shape it into something truly remarkable.

Source: Precious Aku Sadzi/ Ghana Web